When referring to attorneys, referring to the legal profession or to attorneys more specifically. Also referred to as the legal system. Having its root in the legal code, including legal precedent. The profession is subdivided into many fields of specialization.
Criminal Law: this includes but is not limited to criminal law. It applies to crimes that are punished by the government but not included in its penal code, such as torture or execution. Civil Law: this includes all of the laws affecting individuals as citizens, and is the body of law related to civil matters like property, civil rights, corporate law and professional negligence. Tax Law: this is the specialized area of taxation.
This is a partial list of the many different areas of specialization within the field of legal practices. Of course, these are by no means conclusive. Each one has its own particularities. The practice of law is itself a highly specialized and diverse field. There are no specializations within civil law and criminal law, although there are variations within each of those. Within the legal systems, further sub-specializations exist for example, within the private law systems such as those practicing before lower courts and before federal courts, among others.
The practice of law is also heavily influenced by the international legal system. As with many other fields, the practice of law is affected by political and social factors as well as by economics. For example, in many parts of the world, local norms are more important than international norms for resolving disputes. Therefore, different countries have different practices when it comes to matters of domestic and foreign investments, property rights, divorce, child custody, and various other commercial matters. International law is an essential part of the legal system of sovereign states.
There are many international legal agreements that have been created since the inception of the State. For example, most European Union member states have signed the European Communities Agreement which provides for free travel within the EU member states as well as for access to the single market. Several other regional agreements have also been signed. The relationship between the United States and the EU is perhaps the most well-known relationship between sovereign states. The Treaties of Paris signed in 18atory agreements allow for the free movement of people within the EU and the free trade of goods within the EU.
However, there are many legal relations that do not fall under the realm of international law. For instance, a person can be held guilty of a crime even though they may be unable to visit another country due to their mental incapacitation. In order for such persons to be properly represented, it may be necessary for that person to enter into the private law system. There are lawyers who can practice exclusively in the private sector. This means that they will only be able to advise and represent clients that are within the private law system. Therefore, persons may be able to retain the services of such an attorney even if they are outside the jurisdiction of the criminal law of the state in which they reside.